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Quasi-experimental studies have demonstrated a relationship between intrusive thoughts and intentional control responses such that suppression increases the frequency of unwanted intrusive thoughts.
These results suggest that suppression of intrusive thoughts may be important in the development and maintenance of PTSD.
The likelihood of sustained symptoms of PTSD is higher if the rapist confined or restrained the person, if the person being raped believed the rapist would kill him or her, the person who was raped was very young or very old, and if the rapist was someone he or she knew.
The likelihood of sustained severe symptoms is also higher if people around the survivor ignore (or are ignorant of) the rape or blame the rape survivor.
Alcohol, nicotine, and drug dependence share greater than 40% genetic similarities.
Several biological indicators have been identified that are related to later PTSD development.
Predictor models have consistently found that childhood trauma, chronic adversity, and familial stressors increase risk for PTSD as well as risk for biological markers of risk for PTSD after a traumatic event in adulthood.
Heightened startle responses and a smaller hippocampal volume have been identified as biomarkers for the risk of developing PTSD.
Recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder or other anxiety disorders may be hindered, or the condition worsened, by medication or substance use; resolving these problems can bring about improvement in an individual's mental health status and anxiety levels.
Individuals frequently experience "survivor's guilt" for remaining alive while others died.
Causes of the symptoms of PTSD are the experiencing or witnessing of a stressor event involving death, serious injury or such threat to the self or others in a situation in which the individual felt intense fear, horror, or powerlessness.
Other occupations that are at higher risk, including police officers, firefighters, ambulance personnel, health care professionals, train drivers, divers, journalists, and sailors, in addition to people who work at banks, post offices or in stores.